Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Random Facts About.... Tea

WELCOME BACK EVERYBODY. Here for you another "Random Facts About". This should be added to the circle of most common food. So far we've snooped around ChocolateCoffeeFruitsSugar and some other Unexpected Ingredients, but now we will focus on the most English beverage ever known. Yes, my dear gentlemen... I'M TALKING ABOUT TEA.

1. There are many different kinds of tea (up to 1500 types), but they are all derived from just one plant called Camellia sinensis, plant that can keep producing tea for 50 years. The color and variety of the tea (green, black, white, oolong) depends, however, on the way the leaves are treated. Generally this treatment is an oxidation process. Black tea undergoes the longest process of oxidation. White tea undergoes the shortest.
2. Tea is a natural antioxidant, and rich in vitamins: it contains vitamins B2, B1 and B6. Tea, however, is also rich in potassium, manganese, folic acid and calcium.
3. Experts have always advised on the best kind of water for making tea. In early Chinese texts we can find suggestions that the best water should be taken from rivers and lakes.
4. Russians started drinking tea in the 17th century, but because of its high price, it did not become widely popular until the beginning of the 19th century. Tea in Russia has historically been prepared in a samovar, a heated metal container. The samovar keeps tea hot for hours.

5. My quote about "the most English beverage" is not totally right. In fact, Britain is the second-largest nation of tea drinkers. The first is Ireland.
6. Most of the world’s tea is grown in mountain areas 3,000-7,000 feet above sea level and between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Tea-producing countries include Argentina, China, India, Indonesia, Kenya Malawi, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania.
7. Tea leaves are a natural means of keeping mosquitoes away. All you have to do is use slightly damp leaves to add the scent of tea to the areas you want to keep insect-free.
8. Here are five good reasons for not giving up tea, even if you don’t drink it - it helps to heal shaving cuts, eliminates bad odors when added to a foot bath, can be used to marinade meat, is a great fertilizer for roses, and is also good for cleaning floors. Pretty versatile drink, isn't it ?
9. One particular kind of tea is called the champagne of tea. I'm talking about Darjeeling. It's a black tea, grown in the eponymous area of Indian Bengal. One of the world’s most highly-prized tea varieties, teas are often falsely sold as coming from this area: for every 400 tons of tea sold under this name every year, only 100 tons actually comes from Darjeeling. On the other hand, Yin Zhen or Silver Needle are the most highly prized of white teas. It comes from China, and takes its name from the leaves used to make it, which are harvested when they’re young and still unfurled, and look like needles.
10. You can use tea leaves to read the future. Just leave a small amount of tea in the bottom of the cup along with some tea leaves, and after stirring the remains three times, the pattern you’re left with will tell you what’s in store. In Asia, readers of tea leaves are just as respected as astrologers.
11. The term “herbal tea” means that the tea has been infused with herbs or fruit that was not part of the tea plant. Herbal tea includes rose-hip and chamomile teas.
12. If actors are required to drink whisky in a film or TV scene, they often are just drinking watered-down tea instead, which looks the same as whisky.
13. Mix gin and cold tea, flavor with little lemon rind, and you’ll get a great summer cocktail. In the mid 1700s, in Great Britain, tea replaced gin as the drink of the masses, and became the nation’s favorite beverage. But also simple tea is perfectly enjoyable. Perfect when drunk steaming hot, tea is also one of the most thirst-quenching summer drinks when drunk cold, perhaps with ice, and possibly some lemon, lime or leaves of mint to add flavor. 
14. After tourism, the cultivation of tea is India’s second largest industry. And India tea is the variety most commonly drunk the world over, despite the fact that it originally came from China. 
15. One of Queen Victoria’s ladies in waiting, the Duchess of Bedford, is usually credited with the idea of “English Afternoon Tea.” The British invented two kinds of afternoon tea: “Low tea,” or afternoon tea served on a low “tea table,” and “high tea,” which is served on a “high” dining room table.
16. While 1,120 liters of water go into producing a single liter of coffee, only 120 liters go into making the same amount of tea. In fact, to produce one liter of tea takes less water than producing wine, apple juice, orange juice, or beer.
17. The tannins found in green tea have been found to help stop bleeding by coagulating the blood. The tannic acid in black tea, to be precise,  is said to help remove warts.
18.  2009 study by the Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute at Maastricht University in The Netherlands argues that the catechins in green tea help decrease body weight as well as maintaining body weight after weight loss.
19. Ritz Carlton of Hong Kong. This is where the world’s most expensive afternoon tea is drunk – you can spend up to 9.000 dollars here. You can taste the world’s best teas, finger food, fantastic cakes and enjoy the best view of the city.
20. In recent Australian studies CSIRO scientists found that the occurrence of skin cancer in laboratory mice was greatly reduced when they were given black tea. It is thought that polyphenols which are very strong antioxidants and are contained in the tea are the most likely reason for this phenomenon.
21. Tea can be used to soothe burns and sunburns. Put wet tea bags onto the affected areas or keep in place with gauze. This works for other types of burns as well.
22. To cure puffy eyes lie in a horizontal position and place either a moist teabag or tea compress over both eyes and leave for about 20 minutes. The swelling around the eyes will to your amazement disappear and your eyes will return to their former glory.
23. Recent studies have shown that drinking between one and two cups of tea per day may promote fertility by stopping abnormalities in our chromosomes. In a recent test 250 women drank as little as half a cup of tea per day and their pregnancy rates were twice as high as those who did not.
24. Studies in the Netherlands have shown that men who drink black tea which contains catechins are 50 percent less likely to die of ischemic heart disease. This takes place when our arteries become clogged and are unable to work properly because of constriction.
25. Drinking black tea can help prevent lung damage caused by smoking.
26. Although ready-to-drink teas and iced tea are increasing in popularity, they may not have the same polyphenol content as brewed hot tea, which has the highest polyphenol concentration.
27. The caffeine in tea can have quite a stimulating effect, but it usually feels much mellower than drinking coffee. The reason for this is that tea also contains L-theanine that has a very interesting effect on the brain.Many studies have been done, and they all show L-theanine as having beneficial effects on the brain. It is prized for its ability to help induce meditative states, because it can help you relax without actually making you want to sleep. It has been found in studies to improve your memory, and even makes you more aware of your surroundings. It’s also been found to be capable of decreasing anxiety and good for dealing with stress in general.
28. Most people think of tea as only something that you drink, and in most parts of the world, that is the case. In Burma, however, they have long had a completely different way to enjoy tea. The Burmese have a pickled tea that they call lephet. To make lephet, tea leaves are first softened, then allowed to cool, rolled tightly, and placed underground to age. Lephet is considered a delicacy in Burma and is all but mandatory for important social occasions. The Burmese usually serve it on a tray with the pickled tea in the middle, surrounded by several other garnishes. These can include shrimp, sesame seeds, garlic, peanuts, and dried peas. While the Burmese may be the only culture that places importance on eating tea as a food, they still consume it as a drink on a regular basis.
29. Did you make those teas with boiling water? If the answer is “yes” , then here’s your mistake. There are only a few varieties of teas to be prepared with boiling water. But most of the time tea should be brewed with warm water somewhere between 65 to 80 Celsius degrees. It is done this way to avoid the leaves to lose their natural flavor and aroma. Tea is like caviar. You should know how to prepare it and how to consume it before actually having it. SO PREPARE IT WITH CAUTION
30. We can reuse tea leaves, especially pu’erh’s and oolong can actually get better taste and flavor from steeping to steeping. The process of re-steeping certain tea leaves can reveal different and hidden flavor from the first preparation to the second and third one. This way you can reduce the cost of tea, you can afford buying qualitative tea and reuse it once or twice. But be careful: the re-steeping of the tea leaves you previously used, has to take place in the same day as the first steep. Leaving the used tea leaves from one day to another isn't a good choice as they lose their flavor. Well, if it's a good way for saving money, sounds good to me.
31. The tea bag was invented in the United States in the early 20th century. True tea lovers do not consider tea bags to be a great invention due to the way the tea is packed tightly. This does not allow tea leaves to expand while brewing which releases more of the compounds responsible for flavor among other things. Tea bags, which are generally made from filter paper or silk do offer convenience, bringing tea to a wider audience than it may have had before they were created.
32. Weighing in at nearly 265 pounds, the largest tea bag recorded by Guinness World Records was just over eight feet long and wide. The bag is able to brew over 50,000 cups of tea alone and is made up of African and Indian tea blends. This record was set in 2011 in Portsmouth, UK and the blend is known as Portsmouth Tea. There are other records related to tea listed on the Guinness website, such as Largest Cup of Tea (ten feet tall by eight feet wide, holding 4,000 liters) and Most Cups of Tea Made in One Hour (an astonishing 725 by a team of twelve people).
33. Tea was a major factor in establishing connections between the East and West. It was also a catalyst for developing new technology, such as faster transport ships.
34. Until the nineteenth century, solid blocks of tea were used as money in Siberia.


Friday, September 19, 2014

Discovery Central - Morphine, Opium and Heroin

Welcome back to all my Snoopers. This time I'll be giving you discoveries, mainly scientific ones. This new collection of articles called "Discovery Central" will be your link to the origins of the most common and used chemicals around. And the one I'm going to talk about this time is probably one of the most effective painkiller ever used. To be properly clear, Morphine (formula on the right) is an analgesic drug derived from opium but far more reliable and powerful. Like other chemicals of the same family, called opioids, morphine acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain. As everybody know, it's highly addictive and the abuse can reverse the effects fairly rapidly, worsening pain through Hyperalgesia.

The discovery of Morphine changed pharmacology and pain relief. But to start talking about it, we have to begin with the origins and use of opium. Derived from the seedpods of the poppy, opium (scientifically called Papaver somniferum) has been used since early civilizations, first cultivated from a wild strain, Papaver setigerum. The very first evidence of its use can be found in a 6000 years old Sumerian tablet and all the ancient populations (Egyptians, Romans and Greek) enjoyed it to a very insane point. This ancient powder was placed in pharaohs tombs and also mentioned in The Odyssey, the extremely famous classic poem. By the 700s AD, opium use had spread to include India, China and Arabia, the latter eventually becoming part of its trade.
Opium has long been prized for its medicinal purposes, even if its power cannot be compared with Morphine. The famous Greek physician Galen used opium to treat a variety of ailments, including poison, venom, headache, vertigo, epilepsy, vision problems, deafness,asthma, jaundice, urinary problems, fever, leprosy and melancholia. Although its efficacy as a cure for most of these complaints is questionable, the treatment probably put the patient in such a crazy state of mind that he didn't worry about his problems anymore. By the 1800s in Europe, opium was the painkiller of choice for physicians, but its effects were hard to predict. This was because each batch of opium would have its own unique and different qualities, including potency.

But now let's archive opium and start check out the discovery of its powerful friend. It all started in an old pharmacy in Paderborn, Germany. The young apprentice Friedrich Sertürner (1783-1841) was watching frustrated physicians complaining about the unpredictability of opium to his boss, who could do little more than entreat his suppliers for better quality. Realizing that the problem would never be solved until dosages could become standardized, Friedrich tried to isolate the active ingredient in opium, from which predictable and reliable doses could then be produced. Working in the evenings on the pharmacist’s old equipment, Friedrich eventually isolated a yellow-white crystal after submerging it in ammoniated water. Confounding conventional wisdom at the time, the substance produced was an alkaloid (the crystal in the photo is actually Piperine, an alkaloid), the first ever derived from a plant source.
After conducting animal experiments (including on a few dogs who died) and adjusting the dosages, Friedrich named his new drug for the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus, but to keep it consistent with standard naming conventions, labeled it morphine.

As all new scientific discoveries, Friedrich’s discovery was not well received at first by the medical community because of his lack of credentials and poor scientific method. Discouraged, he abandoned the work for several years until, while enduring a painful tooth ache, he treated himself with a small amount of his morphine. After a nice nap, he believed his product was safe for human consumption. But just to be sure about what he was doing, he began tests on local children. Luckily, it turned out to be effective, relatively safe and reliable, and his second round of experiments spurred interest, including that of French physician François Magendie. In 1818, Magendie published a paper on morphine’s pain relieving and sleep-inducing qualities, and by the mid-1820s, pharmaceutical companies, including that founded by Heinrich Emanuel Merck, were producing standardized doses of the drug.

In addition to being sold as an analgesic, initially morphine was also marketed as a non-addictive cure for addiction to both alcohol and opium, and by 1853, the drug was being administered via the newly invented hypodermic needle directly into the bloodstream, increasing the potency.
It turns out, the cure was far worse than the disease. After its heavy use in the American Civil War, people began to realize morphine was even more addictive than opium. So scientists began a research, in order to find a non-addictive opiate alternative to morphine.

But during that searching, London chemist C.R. Alder Wright synthesized diacetylmorphine from morphine in 1874. What a shame that this fantastic new formula was Heroin (on the right). Sure of a great success when he saw it, chemist Heinrich Dreser, with Bayer Labs, further developed diacetylmorphine and tested it on animals, himself (yes, chemists are so mad) and other people. They eventually commercialized it not only as a general cure, but also as a non-addictive cure for morphine addiction… Again, it turned out this amazing cure was even more addictive than its predecessor. Not a complete failure anyway. A new drug can sometimes be more useful, even if you're not actually searching for that.

Both morphine and heroin (as well as cocaine) were designated as controlled substances with the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914, which limited their distribution. Heroin was later banned even for medicinal use with the Heroin Act of 1924. Today, under U.S. federal law, both Opium and Morphine are listed as Schedule II controlled substances, meaning they have some medical use but also a “high potential for abuse.”
Heroin, on the other hand, is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance, which means it has no currently accepted medical use in the United States, even though some countries still use it for medicinal purposes. Recent statistics show that heroin and opioid analgesic abuse has reached huge levels in the U.S. lately, and drug overdose deaths from these have increased 400% from 1999 to 2010.


Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Urban Legends - Nessie, The Loch Ness Monster

If you follow my blog, you’re now probably saying “What took you so long?”. And you’re right. This time I’m going to talk about the most mysterious and wonderful legend of all time: The Loch Ness Monster (Nessie for friends) and who started this myth. First of all, let’s start with a little bit of geography. Loch Ness is a long, narrow lake localized in the southwest of Inverness, a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the second largest in Scotland by surface area (holds more water than all of the other lakes in Great Britain combined)and the largest by volume. It is also the second deepest loch, at an astounding 755 feet (230 meters) at its deepest point. In fact, because of its depth, Loch Ness doesn’t freeze. Most of the water stays at a steady temperature of about 44 degrees Fahrenheit. Only the top 100 feet or so varies in temperature, but with so much warmer water beneath keeping things relatively hot, you’ll not get a chance to ice skate on it. The water is dark and murky due to the high levels of turf in the surrounding soil. The breadth, depth, and low visibility of this particular loch make a prime environment for people’s imagination to run wild, particularly when other lake monsters were plentiful in Scottish legends (thirteen in total).

The first recorded sighting of Nessie, even if this should be considered more as a legend, was in 565 A.D. by Saint Columba, an Irish missionary praised for spreading Christianity in Scotland. Once in the Highlands, he ran across a group of people burying a man who had been bitten by the monster in the River Ness. The Saint supposedly asked another man to swim across the river. When the man jumped in, the monster rose from the depths and Saint Columba, invoking God’s power, banished it at the end of the river course. The story was written nearly a century after the supposed encounter; but even so, it remains a popular proof used to demonstrate Nessie’s existence.

The next recorded sighting happened over 1300 years later, in 1933. George Spicer was out driving with his wife when he saw a large creature, walking in front of their car near the loch. The creature, according to Spicer description, had a huge body, long neck, and they couldn’t see any limbs before it lunged toward the Loch Ness. A few weeks later, a motorcyclist claimed to have nearly run into a similar creature, describing it as a type of plesiosaur -a prehistoric marine creature with four large fins and a long neck- fitting the Spicers’ description. Soon, with the building of a road along the loch’s coast, many more reports of sightings of the monster flooded in.

The huge amount of sightings in 1933, can be considered as the beginning of a long, fruitless search for the monster. The first picture taken of the monster was in November 1933 by Hugh Gray. He supposedly saw a large creature rise above the surface of the water and snapped several photographs before it disappeared, but only one photo turned out when developed. The picture shows a creature with a long neck and a thick body, with four lumps at its side which might have been flippers. However, it should be noted that critics claim that the photo represents nothing more of a dog swimming with a stick in its mouth… not remotely frightening.
Later that year, a man named Marmaduke Wetherell, a well-known big game hunter, was hired by the Daily Mail to find evidence of the Loch Ness Monster. He later found large tracks on the edge of the lake and made molds, but the Natural History Museum examined them and said they were likely from a dried hippo’s foot which had become popularly used as umbrella stands. Wetherell was fired for failing to find any substantial evidence.

On April 21, 1934, the most famous picture of the monster was published in the Daily Mail. The picture was supposedly taken by a doctor named Robert Kenneth Wilson, but he didn’t like having his name associated with the photo so it became known as the “Surgeon’s Photograph.” (left) The picture shows, from a distance, the long neck and head of the monster rising from rippling water. The picture is convincing to the untrained eye, though critics, certain the photo was a hoax, claimed it was everything from an elephant to a diving bird. 
Well, If you think the photo is real, I’m afraid I have to disappoint you. It turns out the photo was a fake. In 1994, Christopher Spurling, the stepson of Marmaduke Wetherell, admitted to being involved in creating a model of Nessie’s neck and head and placing it on a toy submarine. The pair then took the model to Loch Ness and took photos of it in the water. Wilson was then given the photos because he was a trusted man, being a doctor. Wetherell was said to have come up with this cheating plan because he was humiliated by his previous attempt at finding the monster.

So it’s very difficult to understand which one can be a “real” photo of the monster.  Many other searches have taken place to find the monster than those already listed. In 1934, twenty men sat at various locations around the loch with binoculars and cameras in the Sir Edward Mountain Expedition. They remained there from 9 am to 6 pm every day for five weeks. 21 pictures were taken and examined, but they were thought to be of seals.
Since the very first photo, countless more pics, videos and eyewitness accounts have emerged claiming to prove the existence of the Loch Ness Monster. But when technology came in to help searchers, the secrets multiplied.
In 1954, the first contact via sonar was made on Rival III, a fishing boat. 480 feet below the boat, a large and strange object was seen keeping pace with the boat’s speed. In 2011, sonar contact was made again by Marcus Atkinson who saw an object about five feet long and 75 feet below the surface. It kept pace with his boat for two minutes before it disappeared. The sonar image has been examined and critics have dismissed it as an algae bloom.  However, believers have said that algae couldn’t survive at 75 feet as it needs sunlight to thrive, and as murky as the waters of Loch Ness are, very little sunlight would reach so far below the surface.
But a brave adventurer didn’t give up. In the 70s and early 2000s, Robert Rines conducted a number of underwater investigations hoping to find Nessie. His studies resulted in several underwater photographs of possible fins and tails. (one of  the photos on the right) However, in 2008 he claimed that, based on fewer sightings and sonar readings, Nessie had died due to global warming.

The most recent photograph (on the left) was taken by George Edwards in November 2011. Edwards claimed that it is the most convincing photograph yet, which perhaps shouldn’t be too much of a surprise given advances in easy to use and readily accessible home photo editing software. However, in this case, even other Loch Ness Monster researchers have questioned the authenticity of the picture, saying the hump rising from the water in the picture is actually a fiberglass model that was used in the filming of a documentary by National Geographic, which Edwards had participated in. So another try to become famous using an old legend (and lots of subterfuges).

Loch Ness has become a popular tourist destination and interested people can hop on a plane and travel around the Scotland,  looking for Nessie and other  famous monsters. Nessie is discounted by scientists as a myth, but people need something to do with their dreams and free time. Maybe one day someone will be so hasty to dredge the lake, but it’s amazing to wonder what would hide inside those dark waters.

Friday, September 5, 2014

Relics 'n' Cultures : The Dreamcatcher

Try to imagine a small ethnic shop in your town, maybe in a not frequented area. While you’re inside you find yourself in front of various trinkets, but one particular thing attracts your attention. A circle made ​​of light wood, a web and plenty of colorful dangling feathers and beads. You feel attracted to that object, to the point of buying it without thinking too much. That's why more than half of the world's population have one of these in the house, even if you don’t belong to one of the oldest cultures in history.

Noone can deny that the Dreamcatcher is well known all around the globe, and there isn’t only one story behind its creation. Native American had different version, according to their different populations, but everybody knows its power: they use a special wood, very flexible, to create a circle that represents the universe and interlace inside a net, like a cobweb, which has to catch and keep all the dreams that the children have. If positive, the dreamcatcher will entrust them to the pearls (the force of nature), and the dream will surely come true. If there is a Nightmare, it will be handed over to the feathers of a bird, which will take them far away, dispersing all these negative thought in the sky. Although today is widespread among all Indians of North America, it is believed the first dreamcatcher was made  in the lands of the Oneida. Then it would have spread among the other native tribes with variations and enrichments.

According to Cheyenne Tribes,  long before the arrival of the white man, in a village there lived a little girl whose name was Fresh Cloud. One day the girl said to her mother, Last Breath of Night: "When night falls, a black bird often comes to feed, picking pieces of my body and eating until you arrive, light as the wind and threw it away. But I do not understand all of this. " With great maternal love Last Breath of Night reassured the little saying, "The things you see at night are called dreams, and the black bird that arrives is only a shadow that comes to your rescue". Cloud fresh replied, "But I'm so afraid , I would only see white shadows that are good. " Then the wise mother  knew in her heart it would be unfair not to listen to his child’ fear, so she invented a web “to fish the dreams in the lake of the night”, then she gave it a magical power: to recognize the good dreams, that are those useful for the spiritual growth of her child, from the bad, meaningless and misleading. Last Breath of Night built many dreamcatcher and hung them all around the small village. As the children grew up, their dream catchers became adorned with objects from their loved ones in order to empower the magic power, making it grew with them ... Every Cheyenne retains his catcher throughout his life, as a sacred object carrier of strength and wisdom.

According to the Dakota cultures, an old Dakota spiritual leader was on a high mountain and had a vision. In his vision, Iktomi, the great trickster and searcher of wisdom, appeared in the form of a spider. Iktomi spoke to him in a sacred language. As he spoke, Iktomi the spider picked up the elder's willow hoop which had feathers, horsehair, beads and offerings on it, and began to spin a web. He spoke to the elder about the cycles of life, how we begin our lives as infants, move on through childhood and on to adulthood. Finally we go to old age where we must be taken care of as infants, completing the cycle. But Iktomi said, as he continued to spin his web, in each time of life there are many forces, some good and some bad. If you listen to the good forces, they will steer you in the right direction. But, if you listen to the bad forces, they'll steer you in the wrong direction and may hurt you. So these forces can help, or can interfere with the harmony of Nature. While the spider spoke, he continued to weave his web. When Iktomi finished speaking, he gave the elder the web and said, The web is a perfect circle with a hole in the center. Use the web to help your people reach their goals, making good use of their ideas, dreams and visions. If you believe in the great spirit WAKAN TANKA, the web will filter your good ideas and the bad ones will be trapped and will not pass. The elder passed on his vision onto the people and now many Indian people have a dreamcatcher above their bed to sift their dreams and visions. The good will pass through the center hole to the sleeping person. The evil in their dreams are captured in the web, where they perish in the light of the morning sun. It is said the dreamcatcher holds the destiny of the future.

The last legend (the Ojibwe one)  has a lot in common with the Dakota interpretation. In fact, storytellers speak of the Spider Woman, known as Asibikaashi; she took care of the children and the people on the land. Eventually, the Ojibwe Nation spread to the corners of North America and it became difficult for Asibikaashi to reach all the children. So the mothers and grandmothers would weave magical webs for the children, using willow hoops and sinew, or cordage made from plants. The dreamcatchers would filter out all bad dreams and only allow good thoughts to enter our mind. Once the sun rises, all bad dreams just disappear. American ethnographer Frances Densmore writes in her book Chippewa Customs: “Even infants were provided with protective charms. Examples of these are the "spiderwebs" hung on the hoop of a cradle board. These articles consisted of wooden hoops about 3½ inches in diameter filled with an imitation of a spider's web made of fine yarn, usually dyed red. In old times this netting was made of nettle fiber. Two spider webs were usually hung on the hoop, and it was said that they "caught any harm that might be in the air as a spider's web catches and holds whatever comes in contact with it."
Traditionally, the Ojibwe construct dreamcatchers by tying sinew strands in a web around a small round or tear-shaped frame of willow (in a way roughly similar to their method for making snowshoe webbing). The resulting "dream-catcher", hung above the bed, is used as a charm to protect sleeping people, usually children, from nightmares. The Ojibwe believe that a dreamcatcher changes a person's dreams, just like the other tribes . According to Konrad J. Kaweczynski, "Only good dreams would be allowed to filter through… Bad dreams would stay in the net, disappearing with the light of day."
Native American Tales are always amazing pieces of an ancient tradition, involving Gods and Nature. And maybe that’s why people (I’m now including myself because I have one of those) have a dreamcatcher, even a little one. KEEP CALM AND HAVE SWEET DREAMS.
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